Planned Charitable Giving
Today more than ever, charitable institutions stand to benefit as the first wave of baby boomers reach the stage where they're able to make significant charitable gifts. If you're like many Americans, you too may have considered donating to charity. And though writing a check at year-end is one of the most common ways to give to charity, planned giving may be even more effective.
What is planned giving?
Planned giving is the process of thinking strategically about charitable giving to maximize the personal, financial, and tax benefits of your gifts. For example, you may need to receive income in exchange for the assets you donate, or you may want to be involved in deciding how your gift is spent--things that typically can't be done with standard checkbook giving.
Questions to consider
To help you start thinking about your charitable plan, consider these questions:
- Which charities do you want to benefit?
- What kind of property do you want to donate (e.g., cash, stocks, real estate, life insurance)?
- Do you want the gift to take effect during your life or at your death?
- Do you want to retain an interest in the property you donate?
- Do you want to be involved in deciding how your gift is spent?
There are many ways to donate to charity, from a simple outright cash gift to a complex trust arrangement. Each option has strengths and tradeoffs, so it's a good idea to consider which strategy is best for you. Here are some common options:
Outright gift. An outright gift is an immediate gift for the charity's benefit only. It can be made during your life or at your death via your will or other estate planning document. Examples of property you can gift are cash, securities, real estate, life insurance proceeds, art, collectibles, or other property.
Charitable trust. A charitable trust lets you split a gift between a charitable and a noncharitable beneficiary, allowing you to integrate financial needs with philanthropic desires. The two main types are a charitable remainder trust and a charitable lead trust. A typical charitable remainder trust provides an annuity or unitrust interest for one or two persons for life. An annuity interest provides fixed payments, while a unitrust interest provides for payments of a fixed percentage of trust assets (valued annually). At the end of the trust term, assets remaining in the trust pass to the charity. This can be an attractive strategy for older individuals who seek income. There are a few other variations of the charitable remainder trust, depending on how the income stream is calculated. With a charitable lead trust, the order is reversed; the charity gets the first, or lead unitrust or annuity interest, and the noncharitable beneficiary receives the remainder interest at the end of the trust term.
Charitable gift annuity. A charitable gift annuity provides a fixed annuity for one or two persons for life. It's easier to establish than a charitable remainder trust because it doesn't require a formal trust document.
Private foundation. A private foundation is a separate legal entity you create that makes grants to public charities. You and your family members, with the help of professional advisors, run the foundation--you determine how assets are invested and how grants are made. But in doing so, you're obliged to follow the many rules and regulations governing private foundations.
Donor-advised fund. Similar to but less burdensome than a private foundation, a donor-advised fund is an account held by a charity to which you can transfer assets. You can then advise, but not direct, how your assets will be invested and how grants will be made.
Charitable giving can provide you with great personal satisfaction. But let's face it, the tax benefits are valuable, too. Your gift can result in a substantial income tax deduction in the year you make the donation, and it may also reduce capital gains and estate taxes. With a charitable remainder trust, you generally receive an up-front income tax deduction equal to the estimated present value of the interest that will eventually go to charity.
Charitable contribution deductions are generally limited to 50% of your adjusted gross income (AGI), or 30% or 20% of AGI depending on the type of charity and the property donated. Disallowed amounts can generally be carried over and deducted in the following five years, subject to the percentage limits in those years. Your overall itemized deductions may also be limited based on the amount of your AGI.
The charity must be a qualified public charity in order for you to enjoy these tax benefits. Not all tax-exempt charities are qualified charities for tax purposes. To verify a charity's status, check IRS Publication 78, or visit www.irs.gov.